DAYTON: SARAJEVO REMAINS UNDIVIDED CITY// 11. 1995. • MUGDIM CUKLE// DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE OF URBANISM
ORAL HISTORY - INTERVIEW
ORAL HISTORY - TRANSCRIPT
Director of the Institute of Urbanism
DAYTON: SARAJEVO REMAINS UNDIVIDED CITY
‘The Vance-Owen Plan was made in 1993. It based the territorial organization upon the creation of provinces, which would be ethnically constitutive units. There would be three plus three plus three of them. In other words, each of the three ethnic groups would get three provinces, which were to be ethnically constitutive. But Sarajevo would be treated as a separate province, that is, with a special status. It wouldn't belong to any ethnic category, it would continue to be the capital of BH, and its territory would even be broadened to include Kakanj and Vares to the north, and the districts of Fojnica, Kiseljak, and Visoko to the west. The next one was the Owen-Stoltenberg Plan of September 1993.That plan organized BH territorially into three constitutive units, but Sarajevo, within its administrative boundaries excluding Pale, in other words 9 districts, would remain one whole city with a special status. It gave Sarajevo the status of capital. And to a certain degree, the problem of the status of the capital of BH opens up the problem of BH as an integral entity. Then we have an intermediate plan in which the Serbs did not cooperate, but which was still very important for analytical reasons. This was the Vienna - Washington Agreement of May 1994. This was an agreement made between the Bosniacs and the Croats, in which the mediator was the United States, practically, but which divided BH into two entities. That is, into the Federation of BH a federation of Bosniacs and Croats, and the Serb entity. But in that plan, while Sarajevo would have the identical status as it would have had in the Owen-Stoltenberg Plan, that is, as a separate, whole capital city of BH, it also would function simultaneously as the capital of the Federation. Finally we have the Contact Group's plan of July 1994. BH retained the same territorial organization as in the Washington Agreement, except that certain territorial corrections were made. While the city of Sarajevo was treated identically as in the Owen-Stoltenberg plan and in the Washington Agreement, which means as one complete and indivisible city with a special status, as capital of both BH and the Federation of BH. Through all of these plans, the Serbs persistently and successfully out of principal offered their own solutions. They came up with countless solutions, but, essentially, they wanted Sarajevo to remain in the same situation as during the war, with the main part of the city still surrounded. For communications with surrounding territories they offered a corridor, or tunnels, or overpasses, or underpasses that would connect the city with the other territories, but only in one direction.’
• Strong negotiating position for the BH delegation based on the readiness of the ARBiH and HVO to liberate their country if diplomatic efforts do not bear fruit.
• Clinton: “The U.S. wants to end the war immediately”.
• Will the joint institutions of Bosnia’s divided state have enough “connective tissue”?
• Peace negotiations on Bosnia and Herzegovina begin in Dayton.
• The BiH delegation: Alija Izetbegovic, Haris Silajdzic, Muhamed Sacirbegovic, Kresimir Zubak, Jadranko Prlic, Ivo Komsic, Miro Lazovic
• Croatian delegation: Franjo Tudjman, Hrvoje Sarinic, Mate Granic, Gojko Susak
• Yugoslav and RS delegation: Slobodan Milosevic, Miodrag Bulatovic, Nikola Koljevic, Momcilo Krajisnik, Aleksa Buha, Milan Milutinovic.
• Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin assassinated.
• Geneva, November 10th, 1995. Resolution 1019: the UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1019, which demands that the Bosnian Serbs immediately allow the UNHCR, ICRC and other international organizations access to Srebrenica, Zepa and Banja Luka to inquire what happened to the people registered as missing persons, and demands that officials from the International Committee of the Red Cross access to all detained persons so that they can be registered; the Security Council also urges all states to cooperate fully with the International Court for War Crimes at the Hague.
• Dayton peace negotiations: Kresimir Zubak, member of the BiH delegation, objects to the maps presented, claiming he was superficially informed. According to the maps, Bosanska Posavina would remain outside of the Federation’s territory.
• William Perry, U.S. Secretary of Defense: “The Russians must obey the orders of the U.S. general or they will be forced to withdraw their forces.”
• Pavel Grachev, Russian defense minister: “The Russians seek the right of veto on all orders of the U.S. commander George Joulwan."
• Dayton, peace negotiations: Zubak resigns rather than sign the peace plan.
• U.S. troops in Germany ready for deployment.
• Dayton, peace negotiations: BiH Foreign Minister Muhamed Sacirbegovic resigns.
• Peace Agreement in Dayton: BiH will be a unified state with two entities and common institutions. Sarajevo will remain undivided. Extraditions agreed upon for war criminals.
• Paris will be the site of the signing of the Dayton agreement. Slobodan Milosevic is rewarded with the lifting of sanctions.
• At the same time sanctions against Yugoslavia are lifted, so will the arms embargo on BiH.
• Part of UNPROFOR will withdraw, while another part of the UN will repaint their equipment and join NATO forces under the name of IFOR.
• Radovan Karadzic, message to NATO: “If you try to arrest me, you will be killed!”
• U.S. commander George Joulwan, who will command IFOR in Bosnia: “There is only one option – to succeed.”
• Ivo Komsic, member of the BiH delegation in Dayton: "Milosevic was more willing to sacrifice Sarajevo than to go into reintegrating BiH, because Sarajevo as a district was the start of reintegration." Milosevic tells the BiH delegation: “You deserve for it to be your city.”
• Chirac seeks security guarantees for the Serb population in Sarajevo.