TV SCHOOL OF SURVIVAL // 10. 1994.
SENAD MALOHODZIC // JOURNALIST
ORAL HISTORY - INTERVIEW
ORAL HISTORY - TRANSCRIPT

October 1994

Senad Malohodzic
Journalist
TV SCHOOL OF SURVIVAL

‘The first preparations were designing an idea for a television show that would help people under these circumstances. There wasn't much literature on the subject. Scientists and professors were afraid to go out and advise people, so that I even called some of them 'the basement people'. You know that the TV station had only two kw of electricity. But it seems that my good friends and colleagues had decided that we would survive after all. At that time the television station aired only the news and our show ‘A small school of survival’. We were on the air for 15-20 minutes, sometimes half an hour, depending on how much material we had, and that was quite difficult. I always remember how I would use my library. I have lots of books. I studied from just about every book that I have in it. And from my friends who helped me out I also got books from them.’

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TOPIC RELATED TEXT

OCTOBER 1994


• U.S. Secretary of Defense, William Perry, expects NATO to take action. Disagreements between NATO, the United States and the UN on how to punish the Serbs. NATO asks that the UN to determine adequate provocation for attacks. NATO strikes are an important part of international pressure.
• Owen and Stoltenberg say that the Serbian border is closed and that the sanctions against Yugoslavia should be lifted.
• Phantom negotiations over the airport. The Bosnian Serbs claim that they will not allow the use of the airport if UNPROFOR does not guarantee that in the case of a UN withdrawal the airport will be handed over to the Serbs. Presidency member Ejup Ganic: "In 1992, the legitimate BiH goverment signed an agreement surrendering the airport to UN troops. This is the only legal agreement. "
• The Bosnian Serbs set up a missile system near Bihac.


• While the Belgrade and Podgorica airports are open in reward for cooperation, Tuzla and Sarajevo airports are closed. Nothing enters the town, and the Serbs do not give consent for the passage of humanitarian convoys. Natural gas pressure is decreasing.


• NATO claims that the suppression of Sarajevo is sufficient reason for NATO air strikes. They request permission from UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to launch strikes.


• Willy Claes becomes the new Secretary General of NATO.


• With the "Sow of Death" (M-84 machine gun) the Bosnian Serb form a stronghold in the hills from which they attack a tram. The driver is killed, 12 people are wounded. UN soldiers hid behind containers and APCs. Tram traffic is suspended. Akashi is shocked by the incident: "It is a clear violation of the agreement on the termination of sniper fire."
• The airport is closed because several aircraft are hit, as pilots discover upon landing.


• Promotion of the new BH dinar.


• Road brigands on Bosnian roads. Serbs attack and abduct UNHCR convoys.
• TV School for survival gives 2500 advice on the topic "Let's plant on every bit of our land!"


• The ARBiH is required to withdraw from the demilitarized zone on Igman. They request that the UN protect Igman road when they withdraw.
• In California a “sniper lifeguard” is invented as protection against snipers after one of its inventors watches a Serb on television boast of having killed 300 civilians through hilltop sniper fire.


• The film "Bosnia" by French philosopher Bernard Henri Lévy screened.
• The National Theatre has its premiere performance of "Romeo and Juliet" for children. Director - Olja Kostic.


• The Fifth Corps of ABiH is advancing.


• The Institute for Strategic Research in London issues an analysis of the situation in BiH: "The Serbs are slowly losing the military supremacy that they had at the beginning of the war."
• There is no oil in the city. The minimum amount reaches the city, and goes toward UN needs.


• The City government expects that UN troops will again ride the tram as protection, as well as UN APCs to follow trams Marin Dvor to Dolac Malta. The City government again requests anti-sniper teams


• François Léotard, French Defense Minister: "Our troops will be withdrawn from Bosnia if the arms embargo is lifted for Bosnia."
• The BBC shows video footage of Russian writer Eduard Limonov in 1992 shooting at Sarajevo from its surrounding hills.


• Progress in cooperation between NATO and UN. They agree on the prompt use of strikes and the choice of multiple targets without warning.
• Igman road is unprotected, as Bosnian Serbs fire on it.


• Liberated territory of BiH expands.


• By decision of the Pope, Vinko Puljic, head of the Catholic Church in BiH, will become a cardinal.

Modern Sarajevan

He has to have, and on a visible spot, at least one accreditation, seemingly just a piece of paper with his photograph. But beware - accreditation is the law in the besieged city, a proof of belonging to someone which makes you important. Those with local ID. are not more than the second-rate citizens. So, the modern Sarajevan has the accreditation, weapons, a good car, and a complete uniform. The owner of a bullet-proof vest is regarded with honor. The one who doesn’t wear uniform, has an ax in his right hand for cutting down the trees, and a series of canisters on the left shoulder. His image would be complete with a mask against poison gas.
A modern woman from Sarajevo cuts the wood, carries humanitarian aid, smaller canisters filled with water, does not visit a hair-dresser nor a beautician. She is slim, and runs fast. Girls regularly visit the places where humanitarian aid is being distributed. They know the best aid-packages according to their numbers. They get up early to get the water, visit cemeteries to collect some wood, and greet new young refugees. Many are wearing golden and silver lilies as earrings, as pins, on the necklaces.
Sarajevo is a city of slender people. Its citizens could be authors of the most up-dated diets. No one is fat any longer. The only thing you need is to have your city under the siege - there lies the secret of a great shape. Everybody is wearing their youthful clothes of teenage size. Sarajevans lost about four thousand tons (400,000 citizens lost about 10 kilos each). They greet each other with - TAKE CARE!

Experience of Survival

During two years of war, Sarajevo has stabilized within its post-cataclysmic environment. Sarajevo became a new city with a new way and philosophy of living. The 4,000 shells falling per day onto and into this urban landscape brought destruction, but it also brought another insight into the understanding of humanity; the answer to the question of how individuals can create a community out of nothing, and how this particular community in Sarajevo can create a new social group for the 21st Century.
This new philosophy exists in Sarajevo. It is called Survival. It is a philosophy created as a response to terror, a way of recapturing freedom by retaining the fundamentals of humanity; a set of morals, a culture, creativity, tolerance, a clarity of mind, a lack of fear. Humour and innovation have been integrated into every part of life. Even without the hardware of buildings, water, electricity or gas, Sarajevo has not become a dead city. It actually – and in spite of everything – has the software the rest of the world needs.
Sarajevo became a self-contained model of how an urban structure can survive a modern cataclysm. The time of the Warsaw ghetto entered history. The siege of Leningrad has been almost forgotten. The siege of Sarajevo, its 900 days under siege, surpassed all the horrors we've seen in documentaries and read about in history books. Sarajevo's fate, its actual day to day life has become something we've only seen in science fiction movies. Sarajevo's The Day After has proved that the city holds the skills and the knowledge needed to respond to the greatest degree of change in life, using human instincts and keeping the ideals of humanity on a practical level. The knowledge and the skills Sarajevo has accumulated are the knowledge the rest of the world needs in preparation for the 21st Century.
Everything is possible. Subsisting on the bare necessities, Sarajevo doesn't use pesticides or create pollution. It has become the greatest of all green cities on Earth. The entire city is trying to realize the New Age objectives of health, ecological, agricultural awareness, recycling and self sufficiency.
But, this perfect model of Survival can only be realized through the support of the international community. Sarajevo needs technology, education, and cultural information from the rest of the World.
The World needs Sarajevo's experience of Survival.

THE RADIO TELEVISION BUILDING

The massive cement building which had been built to comply with war-time standards of construction suffered frequent shelling. It was one of the first buildings shelled by a modified airplane bomb, an invention of the Serbian commander accused of war crimes by the Hague court in 1996. On that occasion the building underwent the heaviest damage. Even that did not stop the broadcasting. The reports from Sarajevo by foreign television crews were all made in the building.

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