THE CARDINAL KUHARIC VISITS THE CHAMBER THEATER 55 // 01. 1994.
VLADO JOKANOVIC // ACTOR
ORAL HISTORY - INTERVIEW
ORAL HISTORY - TRANSCRIPT

January 1994

Vlado Jokanovic
Actor
THE CARDINAL KUHARIC VISITS THE CHAMBER THEATER 55

‘An messenger came to my house and said: ‘The manager wants you to come down at 1 a.m., dressed in a dark suit, because Cardinal Franjo Kuharic is coming to visit us at ChamberTheater 55, and you should read a few poems like in that recital that you performed a while ago.’ And really, I ran from Mejtas, which is fortunately not so far from the theatre. I ran between the shells that were falling, but I came down and I read Pope Woytila's poetry to Cardinal Kuharic. Not only to the cardinal, but also to many other distinguished clerics. That is all I can say at this moment.’

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JANUARY 1994


• Barbara Hendrix, opera diva, holds a New Year's concert in Sarajevo, as a gesture of solidarity with the sufferings of the city.


• Massacres of civilians from artillery attacks by Bosnian Serb positions in all parts of the city.
• Massimo Schuster, puppeteer-director from France, directs a play at the Sarajevo Youth Theatre: "I'm here because I am a citizen of Europe. This play is a means of spiritual support to this city. "
• In Belgium, the body of the Sarajevo guerrilla Juka Prazina is found in a car in a parking lot.


• Illegal connections to electricity removed in sweep as well as revocation of electrical cables used for stealing electricity from priority cases.


• UNPROFOR's General Bricquemont withdraws from office. He no longer reads UN resolutions because conditions are unfavorable to implement them on the ground.
• In Vienna, meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Croatia and BiH, Mate Granic and Haris Silajdzic. They agree on the need to devise a plan for the permanent cessation of hostilities between Bosnian Croats and Muslims.
• Bosnian Serb forces carry out the false executions of 11 Canadian UN troops just before Christmas.


• UNPROFOR's General Jean Cote says of the Bosnian Serbs: "They are cowards, bastards who shoot children, women and the elderly. We will set up an anti-sniper system so they think twice before they shoot. "
• Croatian Cardinal Franjo Kuharic visits Sarajevo to attend a concert, along with the 'concert' offered by falling shells. His message: "The inner spiritual resistance to evil is eternal and always triumphant over the forces of darkness." At a dinner at Kamerni teatar 55 in honor of the Kuharic’s visit, actor Vladimir Jokanovic recites the verses of Pope John Paul II.
• During the siege of the city, Kamerni tetar performs 652 multimedia projects, an average of two a day.


• French President François Mitterrand sends a New Year’s message: "Our policy must be brave and wise. There will be innovations in our policy toward Bosnia in 1994”.
• UNPROFOR's report reads: Problems with electricity in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina are a vicious circle. The Bosnian Serbs refuse to repair the Vogosca-Velesici lines. The system at the thermal power plant in Kakanj broke down; it has been repaired, but the Muslims won‘t connect it, asking for the Serbs to first repair the Vogosca-Velesici lines. The Croats requested that the Muslims switch on electricity from the power plant in Kakanj (TE Kakanj) so that people in Kiseljak can have electricity. This has not been done, so in the end, near Kiseljak, the Jablanica-Kakanj lines were cut, leaving the Muslims without electricity. As a result of all of this, BiH largely remains without electricity.
• The curfew in Sarajevo is repealed for the celebrateon of Orthodox Christmas: Orthodox priest Avakum Rosic sends Christmas greetings.


• Crisis in Srebrenica; Canadian UN troops are surrounded by the Bosnian Serbs. French General Jean Cote asks for air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali refuses. The UN chain of command is established so that the commanders in the field cannot issue an order. Commands can be issued only by the Special Representative of the Secretary General, Yasushi Akashi.
• Sarajevo airport has already been closed for a long period. President of the Presidency of BiH, Alija Izetbegovic, does not travel to Bonn for a meeting with Tudjman due to the suspension of flights at the Sarajevo airport. Departure from Sarajevo is impossible.
• In Belgrade, the capital of the new Yugoslavia, the inflation rate is 1 million%.


• U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher on possible air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs: "Air strikes could threaten the delivery of humanitarian aid. If requested by the alliance, whose units are on the ground, we will take part in the strikes."
• NATO develops a project for enlargement in Eastern Europe called "Partnership for Peace."


• At a NATO meeting the decision is made to support the Franco-British proposal for fast-action in the release of Canadian UN troops in Srebrenica, and the opening of the airport in Tuzla. The prevailing opinion is that negotiations, rather than battlefield agreements, will resolve the conflict. On this occasion the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General, Yasushi Akashi, states: "The Bosnian Serbs are for a multicultural Bosnia, and will stop all hostilities. It's best not to bother the Serbs during their holiday. This is why the ton of oil for the Sarajevo hospital will have to wait till the end of Serb New Year celebrations. "
• Vatican: "The lack of collective action is the most shameful cowardice."
• The Office for Relocation announces that new documents are required for those who want to leave the city in convoys.
• Pensioners will receive flour, instead of their pensions.
• The Soros Foundation builds an alternative water system.


• Boutros Boutros-Ghali requests from Akashi a preliminary study about the situation on the ground: the Bosnian side from the center of the city fire shells at the positions of the Bosnian Serbs, who fiercely counter by shelling civilian targets in Sarajevo. Foreign journalists located in the city are angered by the report, believing it an attempt to prevent intervention.
• The British are against attacking because their troops are on the ground.
• The city alternates between massacres from the shelling and cultural events.


• Lord Owen thinks that Bosnia should be divided. He accuses the Muslims of prolonging the war.
• French snipers assigned to the establishment of an anti-sniper team are on their way to Sarajevo.


• Islamic countries renew their request for air strikes and announce the possibility of oil sanctions against those countries that support the division of Bosnia.


• Akashi is against NATO operations for the release of Canadian UN troops in Srebrenica and the opening of Tuzla airport.
• Susan Sontag arrives in Sarajevo. She and David Riff, a writer from New York, bring a donation for Sarajevo writers that was gathered as a sign of support at a literary evening in New York.


• The burial of a Sarajevan: You need to have Deustch Marks or oil, otherwise you must arrange everything yourself. Someone brings the body in a handcart to the mortuary. Burials cost 60 DM. In the city there is no oil. On the black market oil costs between 25-30 DM. People acquire planks for coffins and gravestones from smugglers. There are no tools. In order to made a coffin school desks and cabinets are used.
• Establishment of a cultural corridor from France to Sarajevo.


• Children are massacred as they go sledding at the C block of Alipasino polje.
• British General Michael Rose takes over as Commander of UNPROFOR from General Bricquemont, who resigns. Bricquemont said that he felt personally humiliated in Bosnia, where on his arrival at a checkpoint, boys between 18 and 20 years old drunkenly held him at riflepoint.


• The UN issues a statement implicating UNPROFOR in the smuggling of cigarettes, coffee, alcohol, fuel, people and drugs, as well as prostitution.


• The new UNPROFOR commander, General Michael Rose, arriving to his office announces he is not afraid of the challanges that face him in Bosnia.
• Through a decisive MUP operation the “rat canals” which ran from downtown to the occupied territory of Grbavica held by the Bosnian Serbs is cut off. Seven fugitives arrested. The group includes five doctors and one nurse. The Bosnian Serbs react sharply with a threat of blackmail: "We will not treat the Muslims in our territory and we will not let medicines come into the city."


• Marathon runner Islam Dzugum is on Mount Igman as a ARBiH soldier. He runs between 16-22 km daily. He is satisfied with the quality of training on Igman, "And now I just need the chance to race somewhere. In the world in 1994 there will be a number of sporting events. "


• U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher dismisses claims that the United States have been standing aside and watching idly the bloodshed in Bosnia.


• At a meeting the Government of BiH ascertain that the Croatian Armed Forces are conducting open aggression against BiH.


• The Commander of UNPROFOR, General Michael Rose: "Sarajevo is not under siege."

Cultural survival

The besieged city defends itself by culture and thus survives. Groups and individuals create whatever they used to create before the siege In impossible circumstances they produce films, write books, publish newspapers, produce radio programs, design postcards, stage exhibitions, performances, make blueprints for rebuilding the city, found new banks, organize fashion shows, shoot photographs, celebrate holidays, put on make up... Sarajevo is the city of the future and of the life in the post-cataclysm. In it on the ruins of the old civilization a new one is sprouting, an alternative one, composed of remains of urban elements Sarajevo lives a life of futuristic comics and science fiction movies.

Kamerni teatar 55

In the period from January 1 to the fall 1993 „Kamerni teatar 55“ was a host to 431 events ranging from theatre performances to musicals and rock concerts. Although the building has been hit several times during the war, the Sarajevans claim that it is one of the safest places in the city. Twice a week Hair is performed, but some pre-war Shakespeare plays can also be seen. The performances start at 1 p.m. due to curfew.
„Kamerni teatar“ is also a venue for the presentation of new firms, banks and political parties, exhibitions of the „conceptual“ art, photographs, local celebrations, and one can also stumble into a cocktail – made up of the humanitarian aid.
The director of the theatre is Nermin Tulić, an actor whose both legs were shot off in a shelling.

Vladimir Jokanovic
He was born in 1929 in Doboj, Bosnia. He came to Sarajevo after the Second World War, where he graduated from the Philosophy College. He worked as an editor, director and actor at Sarajevo radio. For 37 years, he stayed with the National Theater. He had 200 roles and directed several plays. Today he is the oldest active actor in Sarajevo. He played Hamlet, MacDaf in Macbeth, Brutus in Julius Caesar...

THE SIEGE
He played in the performance “Fortress” at the National Theater in 1993, and in several performances at the Kamerni Theater 55, whose member he has been since 1994.

It there were life after life, in what shape would you return?
As myself.

How do you describe perfect happiness?
It doesn’t exist. It would be awfully boring.

What is you biggest loss?
Thank God it has not happened.

What is your biggest gain?
Healthy mind, health in general.

When and where were you happiest?
During summers spent with my family at the island of Hvar.

What are your lost illusions?
A better order of things, a theater in which the actor is the central figure.

Describe your day at work.
Rehearsals, plays, thinking, role-reading.

Sarajevo?
That dear, unfortunate city, without its wise and talented people.

What words don’t you use anymore?
Peace.

In your opinion, is morale a virtue?
Yes! But it isn’t in an orthodox clerical sense.

Where would you like to live?
In Sarajevo-forever. All around the world, temporary.

How have you survived?
By working.

What are you afraid of?
Laziness-spiritual emptiness.

Does the past exist for you?
Yes, as tradition - not as mythomania.

This is the end of a civilization. What will the next one be like?
It has a dark future.

Can you give us a recipe for mental health?
Work, work and nothing but work.

How would you like to die?
Painlessly.

Do you need hope to live?
Without a doubt.

What did ’92 look like, and ’93, and ’94?
They were all equally terrible.

How would you call this period of your life?
Fall-the best season of the year.

Your message from the end of the world, from a country of last things?
People, love each other!

Do you like life, and what is life all about?
Yes! Life is a dream!

PLACES OF WORSHIP

Built in stone in the Neo-gothic style, with two spires of 43 meters each, the Cathedral represents one of the 4 places of different religious worship situated within 100 meters from each other. On its left side are the Jewish temple and the mosque and on its right the Orthodox church. Some 50 meters further to the right is St. Vincent, and to the right the old Orthodox church and the well-known Gazi Husrev-bey mosque. Throughout the war religious ceremonies were held in all places of worship. Concerts were held in the Cathedral and the “midnight mass” in 1992 stared exactly at noon.

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