December 1993

Aida Kalender
Journalist - Radio Zid

‘People who used to listen to the radio at that time, when they were not able to satisfy their essential needs, they would let their thoughts wander. Via radio they would imagine a life which they wanted to live. At that period Radio Zid tried to attain the most important information on music and film. Therefore, people who listened to that radio station were actually able to simulate the life of other young people, or the lives of all the people from the same planet. Radio was a collective illusion. After the war, radio became less important, because television took over.’



• Peace negotiations in Geneva: negotiations on maps and percentages of territory. The BiH delegation requests: access to the sea, to the Sava and to a harbor.

• Yasushi Akashi appointed Special Envoy of the UN Secretary General for the former Yugoslavia.

• UNICEF helps establish a radio-school. Classes are held over this medium.

• Rounds of humanitarian aid to the citizens of Sarajevo include: a liter of cooking oil, 300 grams of beans, 200 grams of sugar, 400 grams of mackarel, 200 grams of detergent, and 2 candles per household.

• “Opresa” opens a small store in the city with the slogan “Life is about the small things”.
• The Soros Foundation donates a piano to the organization “Nasa djeca”.

• Mate Boban, President of “Herzeg-Bosnia”, promises to close camps holding Muslims.

• Founding of counseling for psychological help: “Staying Sane in Bosnia”.

• The theft of electricity in the city goes on in different ways: setting up of illegal connections, underground cables, connecting to prioritized sources and transformers.
• The Soros Foundation finances the production of 10 tons of rat poison. The active toxin is “Sanofarm”, but because the poison is not registered by law it cannot be distributed.

• “Oslobodjenje” receives the “Sakharov” award. Zlatko Dizdarevic, journalist and editor, receives the award at the European Parliament.
• The fairytale “A Dragon in Love” is shown in one of the apartment blocks in Alipasino polje.

• The bobsled team trains for the Olympic Games in Lillehammer, but do not know how to leave Sarajevo. They train every day, lift weights and run, depending on the shelling. On average they lose 5 kg of weight. The team must borrow a bobsled because theirs is burnt.

• The Russians reveal their own peace plan. Foreign Minister Vitali Churkin travels extensively in major European cities.

• Croatian President, Franjo Tudjman, and Serbian President, Slobodan Milosevic, present a plan on the division of BiH. 33.33% would go to the Muslims and 17.5% to the Croats. Lord Owen must convey this plan to the President of the Presidency of BiH, Alija Izetbegovic.

• The Sarajevo Tobacco Factory wraps cigarettes in book pages. “Toward the History of BiH Literature” is next in line”.

• In Sarajevo Cathedral a ceremonial Christmas concert is held.
• On the occasion of Catholic Christmas, the Pope sends a message: “Let light shine on upon the suffering peoples.”

• The city lacks electricity, water and salt for bread.

• The Festival “Sarajevo Winter” organizes screening of cartoons for children.
• A kitchen opened for people working in the public and culture sectors. UNPROFOR gives them food.


Those with batteries/generators can listen to the government radio and some independent, privately owned stations. The most popular are the urban stations “Zid” and “Studio 99”.


The independent radio station „Radio Zid“ (Wall) founded and managed by Zdravko Grebo, is a station concerned with propagating an urban mentality. To be urban in Sarajevo means to participate in Sarajevo as an urban community. The station addresses itself primarily to the people who constitute the urban population but it also tries to create and educate such audience. It transmits around the clock.
„Radio 99“, managed by Adil Kulenović, is privately owned radio station which gained its popularity during the war. It brings together young journalists and those who were not journalists before the war, but became attracted by the spirit of civil resistance.
The station operates from a basement and is powered by a battery.
The troupe „Surrealists“ was one of the most popular satirical comedy troupes in the former Yugoslavia. They have a show „Microphone on Duty“, produced by Boro Kontić, on the Radio Sarajevo First Program. Their satire on the radio, transmitted every Sunday, is a smash hit with a society at war. „Mustering up humour in the face of death and despair has been an antidote for the war. Members of the comedy troupe Surrealist Hit Parade are applying the medicine in Sarajevo, lobbing barbs on the radio while all around them shells are falling“

(The New York Times, July 6, 1993).

Independent Radio Station – Radio Zid

Radio Zid is an independent radio station not supported by any governmental or other sources.
Radio transmits program 24 hours per day on the frequency 89,9 MHz from Sarajevo.
Radio can be listened by 500/600,000 people. Established at the end of 1992. Radio Zid constantly transmits its program although faced with many difficulties caused by war in the besieged Sarajevo.
Radio Zid promotes the ideas of civil society which is threatened by aggression from outside, as well as by a trend towards „monolithic media“ from inside. Up to now Radio Zid has successfully kept its independence from both pressures.
Radio Zid is not politically close to any party existing in Sarajevo.

Projects – Radio Zid Sarajevo

THE COLORFUL WALL (ŠARENI ZID) – Children's Program was created with the help of UNICEF Sarajevo office.
THE COLORFUL WALL is broadcast every working day from 3:30 PM to 5:00 PM and is intend to reach the kids, the greatest victims of this cruel war, in order to free them from the burdens of reality. The program is designed to be educational and entertaining. THE COLORFUL WALL includes 30 minutes of radio school which helps elementary school kids with their regular school courses. THE COLORFUL WALL radio school was, for a while, the only available official school in town authorized by the Ministry of Education of the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It is important to note that this was the first and remains the only children's program in these territories created and run exclusively by children.
The children's drama department, part of THE COLORFUL WALL, remains innovative and active, having already produced Sarajevo's first-feature length children's drama „Charlie and The Chocolate Factory“ with the financial help from our friends in England. Charlie and the great Glass Elevator is another project of this department, presently abandoned because of financial difficulties.

TEENAGE PROGRAM intended for an audience of 14 to 19 years of age is in preparation. Teenagers are much neglected by Sarajevo media. Research has shown that under the present living conditions in Sarajevo the teenagers are one of the most jeopardized groups in the city in a psychological sense.
Often well educated, but having been forced to neglect their studies because of the war and re-construct a new youth culture, they are hungry for an outlet for their ideas and concerns. This program, produced, planned and scripted by Sarajevan teenagers, will give a voice to their passions.

The goal of this program is to provide our listeners with the information necessary for them to establish a healthy life style. The program plans to cover and systematically subjects unlikely to be in depth at school or in the work-place.
THE HEALTH EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM aims to act preventatively. We want our listeners to be: correctly informed, do some thinking and take independent decisions.

It is well known fact that several millions of lethal projectiles (mines, grenades...) have been fired upon Sarajevo, and that a significant number of them never exploded.
With this in mind RADIO ZID SARAJEVO along with experts in explosives plans to initiate an extensive public information program warning risk groups of the many dangers of unexploded bombs and projectiles.
With this project we hope to raise awareness in the general population and give easy to follow instructions on how to react when confronted with suspicious objects or more obviously deadly devices.

Radio Zid – Art radio

Ever since the beginning of the project we have consciously tried to develop our radio station as an art concept. We thought that defending and preserving Sarajevo's cultural identity was an important as its actual defense. Besides we have tried to transmit in our programs to the people of the city current information about all cultural events in Europe and the world. The Zid was the organizer or helped to organize a large number of cultural manifestations in Sarajevo during the war, some of which were proclaimed the first rate media-events. One of those was the Hiroshima Day on August 6, 1993 which brought together a number of the most prominent artists in the world, while more than 700 of those who could not come to Sarajevo sent messages of support. The „Zid“ was one of the organizers of the two week „After the End of the World“ film festival where some of the best current films were shown and seen by tens of thousands of people. In March and April 1994 we organized a review of the commercially most successful films of the previous year and screened some twenty films, mainly produced in Hollywood. The „Zid“ also promoted in its programs Susan Sontag's production of „Waiting for Godot“ and Susan Sontag whenever in Sarajevo participates in the radio's programs. The „Zid's“ commitment to theatre can also be seen in its contribution to the performance of The Wall (an adaptation of Jean-Paul Sartre's short story) which has been filling the theatre for the past three years. The station also gave its support, media promotion and organizational skills to Joan Baez's concert as well as to „Dystopia“ project which brought together some of the world's most acclaimed architects. A part of the „Zid's“ activity is devoted to publishing. It published and promoted the book titled „100&1 Nights“ (Sarajevo,1994) and presented „The Sarajevo Survival Guide“ (FAMA, Zagreb 1993)
The „Zid's“ gallery organized exhibitions of photographs and caricatures by foreign and local artists.
Simultaneously, right from its beginnings the „Zid's“ program has been oriented towards presenting all aspects of culture. Apart from informing about the current cultural production the „Zid“ presents every day between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. specialized program devoted to a variety of arts and culture in general (theatre, film, music, poetry, fiction, architecture, history of art, religion, etc.). Although operating under totally unacceptable technical and other conditions, at the beginning of the year the „Zid“ managed to produce by its own stuff (technicians and actors) the only radio drama in Sarajevo during the past two years. Its presentation of culture differentiates the „Zid“ from all other media in the city, both the electronic (radio and TV) and the newspapers. The mentioned activities and the program orientation resulted in the „Zid“ being officially proclaimed the Sarajevo media event of 1993. Working towards preservation of the city's cultural identity the „Zid“ has also made efforts to break the informational blockade trying to inform people of Sarajevo about all important cultural events in the world. Due to the „Zid's“ successful coverage Sarajevo, even during its siege, was very well informed about all the relevant cultural manifestations in the world.