ADVICE FOR SURVIVAL
‘So I started off for work, taking the Miljacka riverbed, and they would shoot at me sometimes, but what could I do? My husband was wounded and had to be fed, and my mother-in-law was bed-ridden. And many times I went even though I knew that maybe I would come back alive, maybe wounded, and maybe I wouldn’t come back at all, but I had to. I had two sick people in the house. But it wasn’t just me - we all lived that way. Whoever was able to find some nettles somewhere, or if they received some as a gift, would make that, what did we call it, ‘uljevak’-pie. That was a bonus. One time, a woman gave me a packet of I-don’t-know-what, and an onion and a potato. I remember that I made something that looked like bread. I called the woman next door. She said she would never forget that. Where did we bake? Some people would do it on that screen from an electric range; others would bake in pots. Since we had no wood, we would burn whatever we had around: shoes, sandals, whatever would burn. I don’t know how many books I burned in order to make something to eat for my child, so that he wouldn’t cry and beg me, ‘Mama, give me a piece of bread’. It was the same for everyone; I wasn’t the only one. And many times we all went down to the basement when the shooting started. I would say that this would have to stop once and for all. One time they all left, I stayed and didn’t let my son go, I told him to stay here with me. He started crying and said, ‘Mama, I can’t stand this any longer. Cover my ears with something.’ Because that day and that night it was really raining artillery shells, and when the sniper stops shooting, that’s when a person is the most afraid. Once I went out to get some bread. And so we were waiting, and a sniper was shooting. To this day I am not even sure where he was shooting. These are the conditions under which we lived. It was a struggle for life; we had to struggle in order to survive. That’s how it was on the square, and whoever wasn’t there then cannot even imagine it. More people died from sniper bullets than from artillery shells. Because wherever we moved, the snipers followed us. Even in our apartments. I remember that one time; a woman was bedridden and was left in her apartment while everyone else went down into the shelter. The sniper hit her and she died right there in her bed. There was nowhere that we could go to avoid sniper bullets. They stalked us like animals. I remember one time when I was coming home from work, and I went to cross the bridge, and there were quite a few people standing by the tobacco shop. I asked why they weren’t crossing, and they said they weren’t allowed to. Well, I pretended to be brave and said, ‘I’m allowed to.’ I was carrying a loaf of bread. I started running across, and he started shooting at me, and I threw the bread. I figured, ‘to Hell with food. I’d rather save my head.’ So I went back to where they were all standing and I waited, and waited, until the sniper bullets stopped, and then we ran across. And besides at the bridge, it seems that they were waiting for us everywhere, none of the streets were safe.’
• The first international wedding is announced in Sarajevo. The wedding cake is made from potatoes. The groom, Stephen Peterson, a UN employee, says: “I have a wife, Zorica, we’re renting a house in Sarajevo, we have a garden, our own plums, we even have a dog.”
• Athens, May 1, 1993. A two-day conference on BiH begins in Athens. The co-chairs of the peace conference are Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen. Present at the meeting are: Alija Izetbegovic, Franjo Tudjman, Slobodan Milosevic, Momir Bulatovic, Mate Boban and Radovan Karadzic. Haris Silajdzic, the Foreign Minister of BiH, announces: “The Serbs are buying time by coming to Athens.” Before Athens, General Morillon shows Alija Izetbegovic corrections to the map agreed upon in Geneva. Izetbegovic refuses to discuss the corrections. In Athens, Radovan Karadzic signs an agreement on the condition that the Bosnian Serb Assembly approves it. Alija Izetbegovic: “This signature is a great victory for our country.”
• Officially Washington will not rule out military intervention if the Serbs continue as before.
• MUP Sarajevo issues the proclamation: “If you come across unexploded shells call 985.”
• The textile firm “Alhos” clads BiH athletes at the Mediterranean Games in Montpelier.
• The Bosnian Serb Army launches an offensive against Yepa Alija Izetbegovic requests that Zepa immediately be placed under UN protection. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees recommends that a UNHCR convoy be sent in without the armed protection of UNPROFOR, as this would not provoke the Bosnian Serbs, while if the Bosnian Serbs did stop the convoy they could negotiate for peace.
• The City Assembly appeals to the world for food assistance.
• Drugs enter the city from Posusje, Zenica and Split.
• The Swimming Association of BiH holds a promotion with the aim of raising awareness among citizens on the importance of swimming with the construction of a Sarajevo swimming pool.
• U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher embarks on a trip to Europe.
• The Bosnian Serb Assembly sets nine conditions for the UN. The deadline now is three weeks.
• The first wartime kindergarten is opened in Alipasino polje.
• The Bosnian Serb assembly rejects the peace plan. The Serbian government announces the suspension of all humanitarian aid to the Bosnian Serbs after their reckless voting.
• The “Hare-Krisna” festival begins, a wartime peace festival, with traditional music, Swedish drama and lectures.
• A meeting is held between General Morillon and Alija Izetbegovic. General Morillon: “If we or any other UN Safe Zone is attacked, we have the right and the duty to return fire.”
• The Bosnian Serbs hold a referendum. Russia supports this decision. Madeleine Albright, U.S. Ambassador to the UN, isn’t ready to support the decision, believing it a trick by the Serbs to buy time to win further territory. U.S. President Bill Clinton announces: “Ethnic cleansing is savage cynicism, an outrage to the world’s conscience and our standards of conduct.”
• Former Yugoslav Premier, communist hardliner and president of the Olympic Committee of BiH, Branko Mikulic, sends a letter to the President of the International Olympic Committee, Juan Antonio Samaranch: “Our thinking about the future is an act of defiance in itself. We will not be crushed!”
• The director of Kamerni teatar 55, Gradimir Gojer, makes an appeal to dramatic artists across the world to halt performances and bring attention to the birth of fascism in the Balkans.
• Haris Silajdzic formally requests the withdrawal of UNPROFOR personnel from BiH out of concern for the safety of UN soldiers and their impediment to the defense of sovereign countries.
• NATO holds exercises on the issue: “Responding to regional conflicts.”
• Mostar bathed in blood and flames. Fighting breaks out between the HVO and the Army of BiH. A ceasefire is reached over telephone by Alija Izetbegovic and Mate Boban. The conflict between Croats and Muslims receives greater attention from American media, and further complicates decisions on military intervention and lifting the arms embargo on BiH.
• Serbia punishes the Bosnian Serbs for their refusal to sign the peace agreement by closing the border with Bosnia for 120 km. Biljana Plavsic, one of the Bosnian Serb leaders, is sent back at the border.
• European leaders decided to wait on military intervention until the results of the Bosnian Serb referendum. Lord Owen: “Americans view Europeans as weaklings, and Europeans view Americans as cowboys.”
• A meeting of the BH government is held. They decide “Croat troops must withdraw from BiH, otherwise BiH will seek protection from aggression.”
• Bosnian Serb offensive against Brcko.
• Croat troops destroy the bridge in Bijela (Herzegovina), preventing the arrival of convoys to Sarajevo and Central Bosnia.
• Chetnik Vojvoda Vojislav Seselj announces: “In retaliation for any Italian participation in an allied campaign, we will bombard civilian targets in Italy.” France develops a plan for UN “Safe Zones.”
• General Ratko Mladic, Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, on the possibility of military intervention, announces: “In the case of intervention, Washington will suffer bomb attacks in its large cities. Serb immigrants will carry those attacks out. No foreign soldier that comes to Bosnia will come out alive.”
• Smuggling at the airport runway thrives: one crossing with 10kg of food can earn 1,000DM.
• At the Sarajevo airport HVO and Bosnian Serb representatives meet, without the knowledge of the Army of BiH, an example of their open collaboration.
• Josip Magdic, a Sarajevan composer, promotes “Wartime notes 92”, through the Croat Cultural Society “Napredak”.
• Kamerni teatar 55 holds a performance of “A Prayer for Peace”. They perform the composition “Ave Maria”.
• The “Miss City Under Siege” is selected, Inela Nogic.
• News from “Bosnalijek”: pharmacist Saša Pilipovic produces a drug that had run out - Dexamethasone. Infusion solutions are manufactured.
• Only 105 dogs in the city are vaccinated against rabies.
• Theatre blossoms in the city.
• Pest exterminations are carried out in the city.
• Military patrols of the Army of the Republic of BiH (ARBiH) hold control over the streets. Whoever lacks the necessary paperwork is summoned immediately to the army and placed in a unit.
Every area of the city was a dangerous zone. At every moment, from all the places in the mountains surrounding the city the snipers could hit every target in the city. Therefore the most dangerous zones were those directly in the line of fire Bridges, crossroads and streets exposed to the mountains. Those were the places where the possibility of getting shot was somewhat lessened if one was a fast runner. Such places also seemed less terrifying than other parts of town where one was never sure whether one should walk fast or slow. Would the shell land where you are or in front of you? The signs DANGEROUS ZONE or WATCH OUT, SNIPER, as well as the signs showing the direction of traffic were written in oil-based paint on pieces of UNHCR plastic sheets, or on pieces of cardboard, wooden board or simply written with chalk on the wall.