A CONCERT ENTITLED THE MOST BEAUTIFUL MELODIES OF THE WORLD IS HELD // 03. 1993.
GERTRUDA MUNITIC // PRIMADONNA OF THE SARAJEVO OPERA
ORAL HISTORY - INTERVIEW
ORAL HISTORY - TRANSCRIPT

March 1993

Gertruda Munitic
Primadonna of the Sarajevo Opera
A CONCERT ENTITLED THE MOST BEAUTIFUL MELODIES OF THE WORLD IS HELD

‘On March 17th, 1993. I had a beautiful concert in a magnificent atmosphere and with a magnificent audience, but in cataclysmic Sarajevo. I remember that there was heavy shelling that day. From seven in the morning till ten I counted about 100 explosions. I didn't count any more because at 12 I had a concert at the Chamber Theatre 55 and the closing ceremony of Sarajevo Winter festival, featured my timeless melodies and of course there were guests. By that time I had given 50 or 60 performances in Sarajevo since the war had started, some of them were in the theatre, or in shelters, hospitals, some of my performances were for children. That concert was very special for me because I had got my leg out of a cast three days before. A Johnson cast. A month and a half earlier, I had broken a bone in my ankle while I was rescuing a boy from sniper fire. I thought that I would not be able to sing that I couldn't perform, but the spiritual strength within me overpowered all physical pain. I remember, my physical was sitting in the first row. He was astonished that I was walking in high heels three days after I had got my leg out of the cast. Of course I wore trousers to hide the swelling. After the show I had to take my shoe off, because the swelling had grown so much. But I didn't felt any pain because it was a great pleasure to perform in front of an audience that chanted, applauded. During the period of bombardment the audience was really beautiful, and I performed with all my love.’

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MARCH 1993


• New York, March 1, 1993. Peace negotiations resume in New York. The participants include the respresentative of the Bosnian Serbs, Radovan Karadzic, the representative of the Bosnian Croats, Mate Boban, and the representative of the BH delegation, Alija Izetbegovic. The peace conference is presided over by Cyrus Vance and Lord Robert Owen.


• The Public Prosecutor’s Office launches an initiative to extradite Radovan Karadzic to the BiH judiciary.


• The President of the Presidency of BiH, Alija Izetbegovic, in New York gives his signature to the second part of the Vance-Owen peace plan.


• Japan sends cans of tuna as humanitarian aid worth a total of $5,800,000 – the most nutritionally valuable food received yet.


• In Sarajevo an association is founded for cooperation between Bosnia and Austria. Alois Mock sends a telegram of support.
• A description of events on the airport runway: The nickname for the guide across the runway is “Rabbit.” The runway became a corridor for smuggling and carrying in food in backpacks into the city. Runners wore suits made of white bedsheets so that UNPROFOR couldn’t see them when they shined reflectors. Smugglers broke eggs and poured them through a funnel into a canister so they could carry them across the runway.
• A European edition of “Oslobodjenje” is released.
• Renewed work by the Serb humanitarian society “Dobrotvor”.


• Bosnian Serbs prevent the arrival of representatives of the Republican assembly to the city.
• “Adra”, an Adventist humanitarian society is the best connection for carrying personal packages into the city.


• Amid the humanitarian crisis in Srebrenica, French general Morillon remains with the inhabitants of Srebrenica until the humanitarian convoy whose passage was prevented by the Bosnian Serb troops has entered the town.
• A rock concert in Sarajevo is held, “Help Bosnia Now!”
• The International Center for Peace invites mayors of cities across the world to protest the division of the city.


• In the city, wall advertisements allow citizens to learn about the supply and demand for goods of all kinds.


• 85% of the BH economy is destroyed.


• In New York, the BH delegation suspends negotiations while the Bosnian Serb attacks on Srebrenica and Sarajevo last. New York, March 19, 1993. In New York, President Izetbegovic halts peace negotiations. He informs the co-chairs of the peace conference, Vance and Owen, that he cannot continue the peace negotiations while Serb aggression against Srebrenica intensifies and their fierce attack on Sarajevo continues.


• In Sarajevo, the trial against Bosnian Serb Borislav Herak for crimes against humanity. The presiding judge is Fahrudin Teftedarija.
• In Kamerni teatar 55, safe from shelling, a concert is held - “The Most Beautiful Melodies in the World”.
• Spring arrives earlier than usual: on March 20th, at 3:42pm.


• French general Morillon, UNPROFOR commander, becomes an honorary citizen of Srebrenica. On that occasion he announces: “I feel like a king, the people worship me.”
• Humanitarian aid arrives in Srebrenica. The citizens of Srebrenica stampede toward air dropped humanitarian aid. Many are killed, suffocated or trampled.
• NATO estabslishes control over the Adriatic Sea.


• Heavy artillery attacks on the city.
• The Children’s Embassy awards their mascot, ”Zlatni cupko” to General Morillon.


• The USA will participate in maintaining peace if the warring sides agree to a peace process.
• NATO will send 60,000 soldiers if a peace agreement is reached.
• New York, March 26, 1993. Negotiations on BiH are completed in New York. The President of the Presidency of BiH, Alija Izetbegovic, signs documents and maps as well as an interim resolution for the Republic of BiH, the Vance-Owen peace plan. The interim solution is also signed by the leader of Bosnian Croats, Mate Boban. Radovan Karadzic refuses to sign either agreement.


• The President of the Presidency of BiH, Alija Izetbegovic, accepts the Vance-Owen plan. President Bill Clinton congratulations him on this prudent move.


• A ceasefire is declared. It begins at twelve o’clock.
• Kamerni teatar 55 holds a “Prayer for Peace”.
• The Bosnian Serbs oppose German participation in Operation “Parachute” to deliver humanitarian aid.


• The Bosnian Serbs are given a deadline of 10-15 days to sign a peace agreement. Russia applies diplomatic pressure on them. Alija Izetbegovic announces: “The plan is bad, but the best for ending the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.”


• The Serb Cultural Society “Prosvjeta” renews its work in Sarajevo.


Cultural survival

The besieged city defends itself by culture and thus survives. Groups and individuals create whatever they used to create before the siege In impossible circumstances they produce films, write books, publish newspapers, produce radio programs, design postcards, stage exhibitions, performances, make blueprints for rebuilding the city, found new banks, organize fashion shows, shoot photographs, celebrate holidays, put on make up... Sarajevo is the city of the future and of the life in the post-cataclysm. In it on the ruins of the old civilization a new one is sprouting, an alternative one, composed of remains of urban elements Sarajevo lives a life of futuristic comics and science fiction movies.

CULTURAL SURVIVAL

Sarajevo is a unique city on the planet. It is the site where our civilization has been dismantled in the course of intentional violence.
But Sarajevo is also the symbol of civil defense, the site where violence has been fought back with tolerance, fascism with art and culture, destruction with rebuilding, death with humour, the outburst of rural culture with the one that's urban terror with stubborn maintaining of normal city lifestyle.
Sarajevo has been deprived of all the civil, existential and social rights. It has been deprived of the right to live. Everything that makes normal urban living has been taken away from Sarajevo and its citizens, everything that could have been taken away has been taken away, all except for the right to survive by maintaining the right to culture.
But among all that destruction and dying, kids are being born, birthdays celebrated, weddings carried out. In the city surrounded by the deadly circle of primitivism the exhibitions are being opened, movies made, festivals organized, theatre plays and musicals performed.
Sarajevo lives the post-cataclysm. It is the picture of civilization emerging out of cataclysm, making something out of nothing, giving messages for the future.
Not because the future is necessarily a future of wars and disasters, but because humans are growing older and being born into a world which is ever less secure.
All that has been left under the ruins of Sarajevo, all that has survived the shelling of our civilization is the spirit of the cultural survival. The reconstruction of that spirit, the spirit of Sarajevo must start – now. Otherwise – Sarajevo will become the graveyard of the principles of multiethnicity and human rights.

Kamerni teatar 55

In the period from January 1 to the fall 1993 „Kamerni teatar 55“ was a host to 431 events ranging from theatre performances to musicals and rock concerts. Although the building has been hit several times during the war, the Sarajevans claim that it is one of the safest places in the city. Twice a week Hair is performed, but some pre-war Shakespeare plays can also be seen. The performances start at 1 p.m. due to curfew.
„Kamerni teatar“ is also a venue for the presentation of new firms, banks and political parties, exhibitions of the „conceptual“ art, photographs, local celebrations, and one can also stumble into a cocktail – made up of the humanitarian aid.
The director of the theatre is Nermin Tulić, an actor whose both legs were shot off in a shelling.



The Sarajevo Winter

A traditional festival which used to take place every winter and which brought together actors, musicians and artists from all over the former country. The festival under the directorship of Ibro Spahić also took place in 1993.

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