The Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999 Map


Year of Production
1999
Location of Production
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Original format
Printed Map (illustration) and Chronology (text)
Language
English
Theme
The Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999
Research Period
1980-1999
Outreach
Global
Description
An illustrated map and a detailed 1980-1999 chronology of the war events. The first of its kind project able to visually and textually present and explain all the wars in former Yugoslavia using a map format. Printed on a single A0 sheet. Front page: wars in Slovenia (1991); Croatia (1991-1995); Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1996) and Kosovo (1999). Back page: a detailed chronology of the events from 1980 (death of President Tito) to the end of NATO air-strikes against Serbia in 1999.
Note
Bosnian version of the original Map is not published as a separate edition – it was translated and adapted for the Encyclopaedia: The Siege of Sarajevo 1992-1996 project.
Publisher
FAMA

FAMA TEAM

Authors
Suada Kapic and Miran Norderland
Editors
Jelena Lovric, Maja Razovic, Vildana Selimbegovic
Illustrator
Jelena Oksenfeld
Associates
Marina Banic, Sanja Mizic
Layout
Gianni Fazlagic
Copyright
© FAMA International

Methodology

Because of their influence, those who watch, observe, analyse and explain meaning to the masses are considered a kind of elite; however if this elite use faulty methodology or have impure intentions, it can lead to disastrous consequences. We, the founders of FAMA, the first independent multi-media company in the former Yugoslavia, were fully aware of the sensitivity of the area in which we chose to invest. From the very beginning of the disintegration of Yugoslavia, we knew that documentation, of all types and forms, would play a vital role in the fate of current and future generations. In keeping with our own personal principles, our methods rely on fact, oral history and recorded documentation (documented documents). It is through our unique insight and gift of foresight that we have been able to develop a step by step methodology that 'makes the obvious visible'.

PHASE 1
Gaining insight. This involves watching events attentively with an open mind as an observer rather than a participant, in order to note significant elements of the observed phenomenon; then putting these elements together to identify early signs of any emerging dominant trends that might launch a new process of cause and effect.

PHASE 2
Continuing research through oral history. Those who participated in an observed event talk about their own experience of it, without commenting on other participants. These elements are recorded in photo/video format.

PHASE 3
Structuring the research. Putting first hand facts and documented documents of a particular event, period or phenomenon into a structure that transfers this knowledge in a form acceptable to an audience, devoid of any indicators that would point to a conclusion. Readers, viewers, students, researchers draw their own conclusions on the basis of the given format.

PHASE 4
Converting the structure. This phase involves producing a format suitable for mass production (maps, albums, films, encyclopedias).

PHASE 5
Creating a study pack. We have created an educational pack consisting of different sections that can be used for different levels of education, as our unique contribution to the interpretation of the period 1991-1999.

The Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999 Map

Acclaimed writer and historian Noel Malcolm was impressed by the success in presenting an issue that usually takes 1000 pages – on just one sheet of paper. He praised the succinctness of description of a series of historic events and their adjustment to the historical map format. Knowing that the war had different features not only within different countries of former Yugoslavia, but also within each city in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, we decided to give a graphic presentation of the nature of war in each of these units. It was especially important to explain that all the four wars were encompassed by a single framework.

About the project

In 1980, after the death of Josip Broz Tito, the unifier of the New Yugoslavia, the most tolerant communist country in Europe began to collapse.

The centre of the Yugoslav drama oscillated, international and local factors kept changing, some players disappeared and new ones took their place ... The only one who remained on the scene all the time was Slobodan Milosevic. His war machine kept destroying inexorably for more than ten years (his power in Serbia grew since 1987). International and local analysts had predicted that Yugoslav National Army could destroy Yugoslavia unless the state underwent a democratic transition: Slobodan Milosevic used JNA in his Greater Serbia project in a make believe of a civil war so that Serbia could not be accused of an uninvited intervention. Slobodan Milosevic once said: "It is always the strongest that decide where borders are. We believe that Serbs have a legitimate right to live in one country. And there is nothing more to say. As God is my witness, if need be – we are going to fight for this right!"

The war was a necessary mechanism to re-house people and divide the whole country. Ethnically clean regions were not a consequence but the aim of the war. The same applies to the concentration camps, the siege of Sarajevo, massacres, mass crimes in Srebrenica, the siege of Vukovar, burned villages, the destruction of Dubrovnik, the destruction of infrastructure in cities, the rape of women, destruction of cultural and historical monuments, the destruction of religious buildings, the collapse of the economy, the media war, killing and emigration of Albanians in Kosovo ...

Slobodan Milosevic and his regime caused and started four wars in the former Yugoslavia: in 1991 in Slovenia; in 1991 in Croatia, in 1992 in Bosnia and Herzegovina; in 1999 – Grand Finale in Kosovo.

The Fall of Yugoslavia Map 1991-1999 is our contribution to documenting and archiving the 1991-1999 events in former Yugoslavia. The Map was created by establishing a chain of cause and effect. When the crisis began in Kosovo, we realized that it was necessary to connect all the events from 1991 to 1999 making it obvious that the conflict in Kosovo was not an isolated event but a consequence of the wars led from 1991 to 1995 and resolved by the Dayton Accords. Particular attention was dedicated to understanding the differences between the wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo, and specific features of the types of conflicts in different cities of the former Yugoslavia. We started the Chronology of the Fall of Yugoslavia with Tito's death (1980) although aware that the causes of this conflict reach deeper into the past. This chronology and the records of the war in several Croatian and B&H cities are our contribution to documentation, research and final putting together a picture of what really happened in the former Yugoslavia in the period 1991 to 1999.

Later on, all these projects demonstrated our chosen method as the key for documenting events if they are to serve as a valuable contribution to interpretation of and learning about the 1991-1999 period in the former Yugoslavia. Besides its educational role, the project has also proved as a significant contribution to the processes of truth and reconciliation, as well as to the democratization process of our post-war society.